Adjust an oven rack to the middle position and preheat oven to 400 degrees. Line a large rimmed baking sheet with foil for easy cleanup.
In a large bowl, add cauliflower, olive oil, garlic, lemon juice, and salt to taste and pepper (I like at least 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper; sometimes I do a little more).
Transfer to prepared baking sheet. Roast until florets are tender-crisp and browning around the edges, about 35 to 40 minutes.
Remove from oven and sprinkle with parmesan cheese and toss to coat. Return to oven and bake until cheese is melted, about 1 to 2 minutes longer.
Cauliflower: Look for one that is bright off-white, firm and heavy, without any brown discoloration or soft spots. Cut the cauliflower florets into pieces that are all about the same size so they cook evenly.
Lemon: The zest of one lemon (about 1 teaspoon) can be added with the lemon juice. Just zest the lemon before you cut it to squeeze it.
Parmesan: Any hard, aged cheese will work well instead. Think Parmesan, grated Asiago, pecorino, or Romano cheese.
Yield: This recipe makes 8 servings.
Storage: Store leftovers covered for up to 4 days.