Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Coat a 9-inch x 13-inch baking dish with nonstick spray.
Bring 4 quarts water and 1 tablespoon salt to a boil in a large stock pot. Add egg noodles and cook according to package instructions, about 6 to 8 minutes. Drain well and set aside.
Meanwhile, in a large saucepan or Dutch oven over medium-high heat, cook beef and onion until the meat is browned, about 5 to 7 minutes, breaking up any clumps with a wooden spoon. Drain well and return to the pot.
Stir in 2 cups cheese, bell pepper, corn, tomato sauce, tomato paste, olives, garlic, salt, and noodles. Pour into prepared baking dish and sprinkle with remaining 2 cups cheese.
Cover with foil and bake for 35 minutes. Remove foil, return to the oven, and bake an additional 10 minutes, or until cheese is light golden brown and bubbly. Let stand 5 minutes before serving.
Egg noodles: Or any small- or medium-cut pasta, such as macaroni, farfalle, penne, fusilli, or mafaldine.
Ground beef: I suggest an 85% lean, 15% fat ground beef blend. If desired, swap in ground turkey, chicken, pork, or ground sausage.
Green bell pepper: Red, orange, or yellow will also do.
Yield: This Beef Noodle Casserole makes six generous 2-cup servings, ideal for a main dish. Just add a salad and dinner is done.
Storage: Store leftovers covered in the refrigerator for up to 4 days.
Make ahead: The entire casserole can be assembled up to one day in advance, covered in foil, and stored in the refrigerator. Bring to room temperature for at least 30 minutes before baking as directed in the recipe (at 350 degrees, covered in foil for 35 minutes, then 10 minutes uncovered).
Freezer: The baked, cooled casserole can be wrapped in a double layer of plastic or foil and frozen for up to 2 months. Thaw overnight in the refrigerator before reheating in a 350 degree oven until it's 165 degrees in the center.